Treść głównego artykułu


Adults who again get involved in education often reconstruct their own experiences inscribing them in a language and narrative framework of stories about the increase of their self-esteem. This way the plots that frequently appear in many interviews justify the use of A. Honneth’s theoretical concepts, which emphasise the significance of self-confidence and the sense of self-esteem in the process of building better relations between an individual and the world and of building one’s own image. Thanks to A. Honneth the experiences of non-traditional learners open new possibilities of interpretation and generate new questions. A frequent reference to “the sense of self-esteem” in the interviews conducted with the learners during the research financed by the European Union about the access and retention of non-traditional learners in higher education (RANLHE 2009) as well as seeking proper conceptual categories for this study (SCUTREA 2009) forced us to reflect again on the significance of this “chorus” that appears in all utterances of non-traditional learners regardless the cultural context of respondents’ life. In the article we present basic assumptions of the RANLHE project and we make an attempt to empirically explore the significance of such (self)observations and (self)reflections made by the learners during their education. The analyses will be carried out from the perspective of critical pedagogy. In the last part of the article we allow the respondents – non-traditional learners to speak.

Szczegóły artykułu


  1. ALEXANDER J.C., PIA LARA M., 1996, Honneth’s new critical theory of recognition, New Left Review, 220(1), URL:
  2. BOBAKO M., 2005, Redystrybucja czy uznanie. Debata polityczno-filozoficzna, Wstęp N. Fraser, A. Honneth, Wydawnictwo Naukowe DSW, Wrocław.
  3. FLEMING T., 2009, Condemned to learn: Habermas, university and the learning society, [in:] M. Murphy, T. Fleming (eds.), Habermas, critical theory and Education, Routledge, New York.
  4. FRASER N., HONNETH A., 2003 (polskie wyd. 2005), Redistribution or Recognition? A Political-philosophical exchange, Verso, London.
  5. HABERMAS J., 1984 (polskie wyd. 1999), Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1, Reason and the Rationalization of Society, Beacon Press, Boston, MA.
  6. HABERMAS J., 1987 (polskie wyd. 2002), Theory of communicative action, Vol. 2, Lifeworld and system: A critique of functionalist reason, Beacon Press, Boston, MA.
  7. HEGEL G.W.F., 1998, Phenomenology of Spirit, translated by A.V. Miller, Motital Banarsidas, Delhi.
  8. HONNETH A., 1995, The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts, Polity Press, Cambridge.
  9. HONNETH A., 1997, Recognition and moral obligation, Social Theory, 64(1).
  10. HONNETH A., 2005, Reification: A recognition-theoretcial view, Tanner Lecture on human values in UC Berkeley. Accessed 21st September 2009 at Honneth_2006.pdf
  11. HONNETH A., 2007, Disrespect: The Normative Foundations of Critical Theory, Polity Press, Cambridge.
  12. HUTTUNEN R., 2007, Critical Adult education and the political-philosophical debate between Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth, Educational T heory, 57(4).
  13. HUTTUNEN R., 2008, Habermas, Honneth and Education: The significance of Jürgen Habermas’s and Axel Honneth’s Critical Theories to Education, Lambert Academic Publishing, Köln.
  14. JOHNSTON R., MERRILL B., HOLLIDAY M., FIELD J., WEST L., FLEMING T., FINNEGAN F., 2009, Exploring HE retention and drop-out: A European biographical research approach, [in:] P. Coare, L. Cecil, Really useful research?: Critical perspectives on evidence-based policy and practice in lifelong learning, SCUTREA – Proceedings of 39th SCUTREA Conference.
  15. MURPHY M., FLEMING T., 2006, The application of the ideas of Habermas to adult learning, [in:] P. Sutherland, J. Crowther (eds.), Lifelong Learning: Concepts and Contexts, Routledge, London.
  16. RANLHE 2009, Access and Retention: Experiences of Non-Traditional Learners in Higher Education (RANLHE), Agreement: 2007-1993/001-001, URL:
  17. STAŃCZYK P., 2008, Przemoc i emancypacja. Ambiwalencja funkcji studiów zaocznych, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk.
  18. SZACKI J., 2002, Historia myśli socjologicznej. Wydanie nowe, PWN, Warszawa.